it is not unusual feel that inside the so-called “darkish a while” of the medieval Europe, theology predominated in all of the area from theocracy to regalia and became the absolute authority in the non secular world of ecu. technology was left no area within the dazzling palace dominated by theology and was seen as heterodoxy. At that point, the conflict in members of the family among science and theology changed into severe, or more exactly, the oppression theology put on technology turned into merciless. as an example, Italian philosopher and scientist Bruno because of his insistence on clinical reality changed into burned at the stake by way of the Inquisition in Rome in 1600. notable physicist Galileo, for believing in and publicizing Copernicus’ heliocentricism, changed into placed into prison for lifestyles.1 below the terrific strain and within the context of Western eu fanaticism, there has been infrequently opportunity and space for technology to emerge. up to 17th and 18th centuries, technology commenced to advance hastily and defeat theology ultimately. God have become “grasp no longer at home” and Newton became “chamberlaine in the global”. Why did it occur in Europe? The secret is to discover the origins for the upward push of modern-day science. to look it, we first inspect Western traditional weltanschauung.
Western conventional weltanschauung is a sort of dualism. closer to regardless of what in nature, morality or faith, Western people often has a dualistic attitude. as an example, the classical two-valued good judgment based totally on authentic or false duality founded by means of Aristotle continued to use today. moreover, the dualism of mind and frame, difficulty and object, noumenon and phenomenon, best and fact, collective and character and so forth, could without problems be discovered right here and there in Western records and lifestyle. mainly in religious ideals and metaphysics, Western people adhered to a dualistic role so obstinately that the transcendent world and the actual global had been departed absolutely and heaven and earth had been separated truly.2 regardless of in importance or cost, the former is usually better than the latter. Probing into the origins of the dualistic worldview, we ought to retrospect to historical Greek philosophy (specifically metaphysics) and Christian theology.
Plato’s theory of forms asserted that the area of paperwork and the world of things are antagonistic.three “The paperwork are the ones changeless, eternal, and nonmaterial essences or styles of which the actual visible objects we see are most effective bad copies.”four even though Aristotle attempted to conquer Plato’s system of the dualism of paperwork and actual matters, he didn’t give up the dualistic idea of truth and phenomenon5, e.g. the distinction among matter and shape.
another element of Western traditional dualistic worldview is Christian theology. it’s far apparent that the town of God and the town of the world as well as religion and cause are resolvedly distinct within the Bible. Christian theology confident that any values and beliefs that couldn’t be fulfilled within the global might be performed in paradise best if you verify the lifestyles of God and believe in God piously. If in comparison to absolutely the Christian beliefs, any ethical or moral price or temporal perfect indicates immediately insignificance in itself. for example, Jesus’ reaction to the questions about paying tax – “deliver therefore to the emperor the matters that are the emperor’s, and to God the matters which can be God’s.”(Matthew 22: 22) usually represented the dualism of Christian theology.
The Christian theological notion above blended with Plato’s concept of bureaucracy and Aristotle’s metaphysics latter built the voluminous machine of scholasticism. In extra than a thousand yr of the medieval ecclesiastic system, the Christian theology became the dominant ideology of Western european.
on this context, despite the fact that the clinical researches had been never preventing completely, the scientific searching for and the exploring of nature and even all of the secular concerns faced with one of these best, pure and transcendental realm constructed through Christian theology were struggling despisal, forget about and oppression. Christian theology became the precise absolute wellknown of Western human beings and persecuted those disobedient. notwithstanding that theology almost held all of the power over all of the secular and holy affairs and technology seldom had area to increase, the theological worldview couldn’t be necessarily ever-victorious and ever-valid. as soon as coming across holistic modifications or encountering the attack of heterodox notion, the faiths of Western human beings might be lax, which would shake and even break the entire Christian theological worldview.
Renaissance inside the 15th and 16th century first revolted. The experience of self-awakening catalyzed by means of humanism and the revival of historical Greek and Roman cultures broke down the unified complexion under the reign of theology. guy as a scientific grasp instead of God within the theological world became the middle of social life and academic researches so that science won a valuable danger to develop.6 Then Reformation, in opposition to the moral corruption of the Catholic Church and the sham of the dualistic contrary of soul and frame, advocated “justification through religion” and non secular tolerance and rejected the absolute authority of and the religious manage by way of the Church.7 consequently, science bumped off the spiritual limit of theology. Enlightenment inside the 17th and 18th century in Europe further fulfilled the ideological liberation of Western european.eight motive changed religion and theology receded into the background. contemporary technological know-how emerged as the times require.
The intellectual revolutions above are the primary reasons for the rise of current technological know-how, however in the very last analysis, the origins are from the crumble of Christian theological worldview and the rise of the medical worldview. it is apparent that the crumble of Christian theological worldview was going with a chain of the highbrow revolutions-Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment. however commonly talking, it can be explained in terms of the inherent issues of Christian theological worldview inside and the attack of “heterodox” mind from out of doors.
First, the system of medieval scholasticism that completely made a stand for Christian theology, even though it attempted to shorten the huge gap among cause and faith, but due to its insistence on “faith advanced to cause”, sooner or later couldn’t hold the balance and concord between faith and reason. On the only hand, J. D. Scotus’ principle of “double reality” accelerated the departure of faith and reason.nine then again, mysticism contended an immediate come upon and mystical union with God, consisting of J. Eckhart stated “God and soul have been neither unaquainted nor a long way away, so soul became now not most effective consistent with God, but identical with God.”10 Mysticism distained all secular affairs, consequently, theological dualistic worldview changed into converted into a transcendental monistic worldview which refused any intervention of human cause. W. Ockham’s nominalism argued in opposition to the doctrines made up by using scholasticism and the arguments of God’s existence. His principle of simplicity referred to as “Ockham’s razor” contended that “what can be explained on fewer principles is explained needlessly by means of greater”eleven, which have become a “prodder setting medieval theological system into disintegration.”12 consequently, Western european in the past due center ages misplaced their self assurance in Christian theological worldview and started to motel to reason.
Secondly, Copernicus’ heliocentricism affected the worldview of the cutting-edge scientists and philosophers in Renaissance and geocentricism of the theological worldview became severely challenged. Human misplaced the superiority built by means of Christian theology within the cosmos and the dualistic relation between heaven and the sector was unfastened. Scientists at that point e.g. Galileo most effective seemed God as high green purpose of the physical world and deprived God of the title of very last cause. consequently, the energy and the omnipotence of God have been questioned. different scientists together with Bruno due to the have an impact on of clinical discover, commonly followed a pantheistic function as a substitute of the theological dualistic worldview. meanwhile, an inclination in modern-day philosophy regularly emerged to cooperate with science to rationalize the world. as an instance, Descartes “first made use of God’s life for the objectivity and reality of the physical international and then locked God into coffer and explained the shape of the sector in a scientific view.”thirteen As for the trouble of the transcendental world in theology was “hanged” and became a “pseudo-hassle”. The pantheistic metaphysics of Spinoza excluded the life of the transcendental world, which also gave a deathblow to the dualistic theological worldview. then again, the empiricism initiated through Locke evolved to Hume became an intensive positivism of skepticism, which in the long run denied religious substance and the existence of causal necessity and denied all the tries of the arguments of God’s lifestyles thru human reason and empirical facts, which greatly fluctuated the basis of theology. Kant’s concept of the antinomies and vital rational theology contended that the transcendental international or noumenal global, the existence of God and the immortality of soul could not be proved, consequently, theology turned into excluded from human expertise. Hegel’s rationalistic dialectic metaphysics seemed the variational procedure of the actual global because the self-unfolding of absolute spirit and converted the dualistic worldview into absolute idealism. The dualistic worldview become eventually discarded and Christian theological ideals had been evanesced in Hegel’s gadget. consequently, motive gained the gain over religion and the scientistic worldview in preference to the theological dualistic worldview became the dominant ideology of Western ecu.
The rise of modern science could not begin until the conventional dualistic worldview became transformed, because weltanschauung is the closing know-how of the sector or human life of human beings, which is able to potentially predominate the ultimate mindset toward and sports in life of thinkers, social employees or even the loads in a area. this is, handiest if the traditional theological worldview became replaced via a new motive-based totally worldview viz. the scientistic worldview, the upward thrust of modern-day technology should have ultimate warranty. In a phrase, the origins for the upward thrust of current technological know-how have been the collapse of the theological dualistic worldview and the predominance of the clinical worldview.
The conversion from theology to technological know-how has both high quality and poor affects on Western records. After on foot up on the fast lane of medical improvement, the realistic lifestyles of Western eu was substantially stepped forward, the fabric civilization became unexpectedly improved, the discover of nature and geography become constantly superior and era turned into dramatically reformed. Thence, Western nations made a continuous development whereas japanese countries fell some distance in the back of. The affect of the conversion from theology to technological know-how is unmeasurable, just as historian H. Butterfield mentioned on this problem: “The impact on the arena subculture of the upward push of cutting-edge technological know-how in the seventeenth century ought to handiest be noted within the same breath with the upward thrust of Christianity within the first century.”14 however, it does no longer imply that this conversion doesn’t have any terrible effect on Western ecu. “Weltanschauung may be idea as a kind of complete revel in that maximum doubtlessly influences the cultural ecosystem e.g. educational ideas, life patterns, residing attitudes and so on of any united states and sociaty.”15 for this reason, when the weltanschauung of the human beings in a place undergoes a right-about or fundamental conversion, the instructional subculture and lifestyles attitudes and behaviors can have holistic changes.
because the conventional dualistic worldview become the dominant ideology from the Aristotle to the late center a long time, in which Western european soaked themselves and took it without any consideration all the time, the non secular crisis of Western european became coming on the just day the theological worldview collapsed. within the context that the theological worldview nodded to its fall and nihilism was tremendous around, Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky and Nietzsche etc. in 19th century inaugurated the philosophical ideas of existentialism in accident to store the non secular crisis and get lower back the lost psychic domestic of Western european.
Danish philosopher Kierkegaard’s existentialistic notion turned into a critical response to Hegel’s rationalism, which rejected Hegel’s forget about of theology and the trouble of religion and contended that theological expertise and Christian beliefs are subjective reality that can not be evanesced in popular goal understanding. He concept that rationalist Hegel etc holded the position of the supremacy of motive and reduced the transcendental global into summary concept, which obliterated the paradoxicality (reality as subjectivity) of theology and the non-rationality (now not congruent with reason however with feelings and faith) of the dualistic worldview. Russian novelist Dostoevsky observed the hassle of destiny of life after the crumble of the theological worldview. In his novels from Crime and Punishment to The Brothers Karamazov, he discussed how to are seeking the religious manner out after the comedown of faith in God. He implied that except Christian theology and ideals, Western human beings could not find a savior for their non secular crisis. every other initiator of existentialism and also a consultant discern of philosophy of Will Nietzsche, although likewise criticizing rationalism, driven the theological dualistic worldview into collapse on the identical time. From the belief of “God is useless” (Nietzsche sincerely believed that Western ecu had misplaced the theological worldview.), he claimed that every one traditional morality, philosophies and theologies should be revalued with the collapse of the dualistic worldview. New values and ideals have to be installed by way of the Superperson who can harmonize the animal nature with the intellect and keep a balance among Dionysian and Apollonian factors. His theory of the will to power is the foundation of his philosophy of the Superperson.16
From the argument above, it’s far obvious that the conversion from theology to technological know-how, though introduced high cloth civilization to the Western international, yet also produced deep spiritual crisis for Western humans. The scientistic worldview in the extreme might regard motive because the unique preferred to evaluate all values and exclude any other “unscientistic” worldviews, which could similarly reject the value and meaning of faith and affection and completely alienate people from the cognizance of lifestyles. furthermore, the improvement of scientific theories could have inspired the development of efficient technologies, which would an increasing number of enhance the threat of the medical technicalization. And the maximum chance of the medical technicalization is to do away with motive of value by way of price of tool and let people to overlook the problem of lifestyles of themselves and come to be the average “massman” or the “not unusual herd” degenerated from the actual and person existence in the mathematically mechanical manner. inside the context of non secular externalization and secularization, the genuine Christian ideals disappeared whilst the theological dualistic worldview lost its unique which means.
it’s miles undoubted that there exist a few incompatibilities among theology and science. technology (in slim feel herbal science) is the understanding of the physical international, which in particular explains phenomena and laws of factors; while theology is the know-how of the immaterial global, which chiefly resolves the trouble of religion and the transcendental world (God and heaven). for the reason that late center a long time mainly contemporary instances, “the contradiction and conflicts in relations among technology and theology have been so serious that people continually oppose them with every other that seemingly can’t coexist.”17 We do no longer deny the cruel oppression on science exerted by using theology within the center a while and the remarkable effect on theology made by way of technology in modern times, but, science and theology aren’t always “oil and vinegar” and no longer able to being conciliated. In truth, a number of eminent scientists- Isaac Newton, M. Faraday, C. Maxwell, Albert Einstein and many academicians of the Royal Society and many others. all have deep faith in Christian belief or interest in theology. a few scientists even bear in mind that science and theology are coherent and that they satisfy the identical challenge through distinct approaches.18 In current years, the communicate between science and theology have been paid growing interest to both through scientists and theologians or philosophers of faith and various theories of the family members among technology and theology or religion were offered successively. Wang Pisheng of Hong Kong Baptist university claims that the communicate among technological know-how and theology in current years isn’t a brand new and uncommon phenomenon but a protracted and non-stop way of life.19 He also indicated that many top scientists today are aware of the significance to study from philosophy and theology, no longer simplest to have a deeper insight into the significance of the medical paintings, but additionally to are trying to find a step forward of their clinical studies. therefore, it’s miles reasonable to accept as true with that science and theology have a basis of coexistence and harmonization. If the 2 both apprehend their limits and the conjunct significance to human life, a segment of technological know-how and theology in harmony is optimistically to return.
After experiencing the tragedies of the 2 world Wars and the unfold of nihilism and hedonism after the Wars, people in the New Century can nevertheless now not experience the peaceful life from the flying development of technological know-how. The threats of the guns of large destruction and nuclear battle and the crime of terrorists who killed the harmless thru current scientific generation, all of those have strengthened the uneasiness, lack of confidence and tension of human beings directly or circuitously. And that the tsunami aroused through the earthquake on the Indian Ocean devitalized hundreds of lives on the end of final year and a trail of failures-Pakistani earthquake, hurricanes in North the us, hog cholera and birds’ flu and so forth latter, have made it clear that technological know-how isn’t all-powerful faced with the ones frightened screw ups; whilst the global humanitarian succors exceptional since the beginning of this yr have simply indicated that religion and affection are the non secular springs of human peace and cohesion. It offers us a profound revelation: the tensions and conflicts between science and theology aren’t useful to human peace and improvement at the same time as the mutual-supplement and reconciliation among them are in all likelihood the best salvation to help human beings above water. just as Paul Tillich says in his way of life of Theology, “They need to not be separated from each different; they need to be aware that their isolated existence is risky.”20
A. N. Whitehead thinks that non secular symbols endow human with the which means of lifestyles; scientific modes endue people with the capability to reform nature. The impacts of faith and technological know-how are so terrific that the orientation of human records in the future is decided by way of how current humans appearance on the family members between science and religion. It suggests absolutely that theology and technological know-how are each the religious pillars fundamental of human development. We need ‘God’, as well as ‘Newton’. both of them are rooted within the basis of human internal world and point to the last difficulty for humans. Been privy to this, conflicts between science and theology could be conquer and technology and theology both could rediscover their proper existence within the mental existence of human and endow man with remaining meaning, creative knowledge and courage to love.
note:
1 F. Engels in Dialectic of Nature(zi ran bian zheng fa): “herbal technological know-how despatched its martyrs to the stake and the prison of Inquisition.” exactly talking, it is Christian church that despatched medical martyrs to the stake and jail.
2 Fu Weixun, From Western Philosophy to Zen Buddhism, 1989, p158.
3 As Bertrand Russell says in A history of Western Philosophy: “Plato’s philosophy is based totally on the distinction between truth and phenomenon.”
4 Sammuel Enoch Stumpf & James Fieser, Socrates to Sartre and beyond A history of Philosophy, seventh edition, 2003, p55.
5 Aristotle believed that God as pure concept, happiness and complete self-actualization is everlasting and doesn’t have any reason that is not fulfilled; contrarily, the realistic global is unperfect, has existence and desire, and belongs to the impure idea. The concept as well represents his dualistic outlook.
6 it is asserted in A records of Europe written with the aid of eleven eu historians that God and heaven were visible because the middle of notion within the center a long time, however Renaissance drew the eye of people to guy and the real world. This conversion had an effect on science. since then, theology lost its superiority and the hobby in human and nature prevailed.
7 Luther says: “each Christian can interpret the Bible in his very own way”, that is towards ecclesiastical authority, because only the Church has the electricity to interpret the Bible and its interpretation is the specific proper one.
8 it’s far claimed in A records of Europe that nature in keeping with its personal law of development will bring about an ideal global, so the non secular and political interventions of human must be minimum…reason requests guy to expand in nature, which indicates the significance of reason within the research of nature.
nine Wollf feedback on Scotus’ theory of “double reality” that it surely promoted the worldly studies enterprise.
10 Paul Tillich, Theology of tradition, 1988.
11 Samuel Enoch Stumpf & James Fieser, Socrates to Sartre and past A history of Philosophy, 7th Edit., 1966, 2003, p. 185.
12 Fu Weixun, From Western Philsophy to Zen Buddhism, 1989, p.161.
thirteen idem, p. 162.
14 Wang Pisheng, “technological know-how seeks God: the brand new phenomena of the speak among technology and theology”, file of the studies center of chinese language Christian Religions, 2nd difficulty, 2002.
15 said via Fu Weixun.
16 Nietzsche writes, “I regard Christianity as the most deadly and seductive lie that has ever but existed – because the finest and most impious lie”, which is a deadly blame on the slavish morality of Christianity.
17 Dong Xiaochuan, “technological know-how and theology: the two pillars of contemporary American Civilization”, [http://xueshu.newyouth.beida-online.com/data/data.ph3]
18 idem.
19 Wang Pisheng, “technology seeks God: the brand new phenomena of the dialogue among technology and theology”.
20 Paul Tillich, Theology of tradition.

Leave a Comment